Perception is the way visual or spatial information is translated into a model of the world. Computer vision including sensors, embedded imaging, video infrastructure, vision applications, convolutional neural networks, vision transformers is one form of perception. Lidar, radar including short-wave and RFID, and infrared sensing are debatably forms of perception. AR, VR, and XR all involve technologies with perceptive capabilities. Cashierless checkout, self driving, 3D home modeling, and photogrammetry are successful commercial applications in this area.

Intelligence usually follows perception, or it is involved in entirely unique systems. Intelligence means predicting, learning, discovering, noticing. Intelligent systems may not be generally intelligent, but they are likely to become so. Copilot, GPT3, and Midjourney all exhibit signs of intelligence.

Data is the storage, transfer, availability, correctness, modeling, retrieval of pieces of information. Perceptive and intelligent systems consume enormous amounts of data. Many answers from data today are obtained manually. Databases, data warehouses, data lakes, data lakehouses, object stores, in-memory databases, client-side databases, and file systems store data. Data is streamed, subscribed to, queried, transformed, extracted, and updated.

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